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Knottingley and Ferrybridge Local History



THE COMPANY (1836-1873)

Mark Carter's third share in the Knottingley Brewery was made over to his eldest son, John Carter, by deed of transfer, dated 1st February, 1836. (1) The names of the co-partners as given in the document are Edward Gaggs and Elizabeth Carter, widow, of Howden, thereby suggesting that each partner held an equal third share at that date. From this it would appear that the one sixth share purchased by Mark Carter's brothers, John and Thomas, following Robert Seaton's enforced withdrawal from the company in 1811, had been restored to its original third part at a later date and had passed to Elizabeth, the widow of Thomas Carter of Howden who had died in 1829. The impression is reinforced by a series of deeds dated between 1834-46 in which Elizabeth Carter's name is featured as the third co-partner in the company. (2) However, further examination reveals that John Carter of Howden still retained his sixth share in the company for his name appears together with that of Elizabeth Carter, Edward Gaggs and John Carter of Knottingley in two deeds of 1841. (3) Edward Gaggs had in fact, died, in his 69th year, on the 5th January,1840, leaving his wife, Grace Gaggs, a life interest in his third share of the brewery, (4)

With the death of John Carter of Howden on the 9th December,1850, his sixth part was inherited by his son, Thomas, and when Thomas died on the 23rd April,1854, his portion was bequeathed jointly to Thomas Carter of Tanshelf, Pontefract, and John Carter of Knottingley. (5) John Carter's twelfth share cost him 1,750 of which sum 600 was in the form of a bond at 5% interest per annum which was paid off to Edward Carter of Howden, Executor of Thomas Carter, on the 23rd December, 1859, making the complete purchase price 1,793-15-0. (6) The transfer was formally sealed by an indenture of April 1856. (7)

Thomas Carter of Tanshelf did not long enjoy the profits from his portion for on the 1st June 1856, he died, leaving his nephew, Thomas, then resident at Howden but later of Fishguard, Pembrokeshire, the shareholding. (8) Grace Gaggs died on the 11th December,1860, aged 84, and her share in the business was transferred by means of an indenture dated 19th October, 1863, to the trustees of her son, Thomas Gaggs, who had predeceased his mother, having died 24th July, 1858. The will of Thomas Gaggs, however, granted power of sale to his trustees as a result of which John Carter was able to purchase the Gaggs' brewery interest. (9) Owing to the complex nature of the Gaggs' legal affairs, settlement of Grace Gaggs' estate was more than usually delayed. On the 3rd March, 1862, John Carter paid the sum of 300 to William Carter Gaggs of Howden, a trustee of Grace Gaggs, against the security of deeds made in his name on behalf of the brewery company.(10) In September of that year 191 was advanced by John Carter to the trustees of the late Thomas Gaggs;

"This money being advanced for them to pay the interest of the 4,000 left under
Edward Gaggs' will, late of Knottingley". (11)

A marginal note made by John Carter in the company account book on the 31st August 1863, notes the completion of the purchase of the third share formerly held by the Gaggs'. (12) All property bought by the brewery company during the twenty year period between the death of Edward Gaggs in 1840 and that of Grace Gaggs in 1860 was excluded from the purchase price. Under the terms of the transaction Thomas and William Carter Gaggs, as trustees of Thomas Gaggs, were to receive the sum of 9,595. plus 57-15-6. accumulated interest; a total purchase price of 9,652-15-6. Of this sum 385 was paid on the 7th September when the agreement was formalised, followed by a further cash payment of 4,210. on the 17th October,1863, and the balance of 5,057-15-6. ten days later. (13) Thus, by late 1863, the company was completely in the hands of the Carter family with John Carter holding three-quarters of the shares but having complete administrative control. It was at this time that the business was renamed as John Carter & Co.

The dual ownership continued until 1881, although with the death of John Carter on the 6th October,1873, control of the business passed to his only son, George William Carter. Following the death of Thomas Carter at Fishguard on the 15th April, 1881, ownership of the brewery company passed exclusively to George William Carter. (14) The brewery accounts reveal a series of activities during the second week of September, 1881, which provide an insight into the steps taken to complete the transition to sole ownership. Immediately following the death of Thomas Carter, John Skipwith Bentley, of Bentley & Son, the local auctioneers and valuers, was engaged to make a valuation of the brewery. (15) Simultaneously, a Leeds accountant, Charles E. Bolton, was engaged to examine the business accounts and draw up a balance sheet showing the value of the company as it stood at the time of Thomas Carter's death. (16) The basis of the valuation was defined as

".....the brewery, plant, public houses (casehold, copyhold & freehold), land, houses, Brewery House [Lime Grove] Book Debts, Cash in Banks, Stock and all Assets of John Carter & Co., according to their value on the 16th April,1881". (17)

To facilitate the purchase of the remaining quarter share, George William Carter transferred a sum in excess of 12,000 from his private account into that of the company and, presumably by prior agreement, Richard Moxon, the Pontefract maltster, in his capacity as executor of Thomas Carter of Fishguard, lent 5,000 on bond to George William Carter from the deceased's estate for a period of three years at 4% interest per annum. (18) The purchase price was paid on the 9th September, 1881, in the following way,

Cheque in bank...........................6,500.
Bond given by George William Carter @ 4% per annum...........5,000.
Total........13,000 (19)

Additional expenses included the payment of 225-6-11. as interest accruing to Thomas Carter's estate during the year and the sum of 96 to Bentley & Son, 19-13-0. to the accountant and Stamp Duty of 70. (20).Thus, eighty years after the establishment of the brewery partnership, the company devolved to the sole ownership of the grandson of Mark Carter. The bulk of the properties belonging to the company had been acquired within the previous half century. In little over a decade more the business was to pass from private ownership and family control.

Expansion in the volume of trade implied a corresponding expansion in the size of the brewery. The success experienced by the partners from the outset of their venture had created an awareness of the eventual necessity for enlargement of the brewery's capacity. Consequently, in the Spring of 1821, Edward Gaggs and John Fox Seaton (then resident at Clapham), sold an additional portion of Mill Field to the brewery company. The newly obtained portion of land was 2 acres 17 perches in extent and lay between the brewery to the east and the remaining portion of Gagg's holding to the west. Following the death of Grace Gaggs, the trustees of her estate sold a further four acres known as Mill Close to John Carter on the 27th October, 1863, as part of the transaction by which Carter bought the Gaggs' family interest in the brewery. (22) Seven months earlier a small parcel of land, 2 roods 2 perches in size, situated to the west of Mill Close, had been purchased from the Hawke family. The land was the site of a defunct ropewalk, formerly in the ownership of William Moorhouse. (23) John Carter now owned all the land lying to the west of the brewery stretching as far as Forge Hill Lane (also known at that time as Mill Lane), except for a small strip of intervening land adjacent to the old ropewalk site. The strip formed a tramway which ran diagonally between Hill Top, at a point along the western side of the Bay Horse Inn and a terminal point at the side of the Knottingley-Goole canal marked by a wharf with two lime spouts. The tramway was but one of several situated along the length of Hill Top. Initially used to transport limestone from the nearby quarries to the River Aire, the tramways had been cut back with the construction of the canal between 1820-26 but extended as new quarries were opened to the south of Weeland Road, passing under the road by means of specially constructed tunnels. (24) The land comprising the tramway was originally owned by Edward Gaggs and with the disposal of his estate was purchased by the proprietor of the King's Mills, William Jackson, but quickly sold to John Carter on the 23rd January,1864. (25)

To the east of the brewery was a parcel of land known as Franks Close, named after the former owner, Bacon Frank. The land was originally 5 acres 1 rood 38 perches in extent but was bisected by the canal, leaving a portion in excess of 3 acres belonging to the brewery. Initially, the additional land acquired by John Carter in the proximity of the brewery was surplus to immediate requirements and was rented out privately. Throughout the decades prior to his death in 1865, William Moorhouse rented Franks Close at an annual rent of 15. (26) Mill Lane Close was similarly let but with the development of the brewery site both parcels of land were let by Carter to the brewery company. The company paid 21 per annum in half yearly instalments for the use of Franks Close whilst Mill Lane Close was rented at 13, rising to 14 in February, 1878. The principal basis of company expansion was the acquisition of public houses as purveyors of the brewery's wares to the exclusion of all rival brands. During the early period of the partnership annual agreement with individual publicans was the most common form of the tied trade, giving way to longer term lease agreements as individual circumstance dictated the relationship between brewer and publican. Outright ownership was, of course, the most secure, albeit, most expensive way of obtaining regular sales outlets. With no serious rival to threaten trade within its immediate area of distribution Knottingley brewery had little need to resort to the purchase of company houses before the combination of the Wellington Act and the development of the railway network intensified competition post 1830. A few houses had been purchased by the company, however, to supplement those which were acquired by incidental means such as through debt and bankruptcy.

The earliest recorded company owned house is the purchase of the Hope & Anchor Inn, Pontefract. The property was acquired on the 4th October, 1805, some three years before the Mill Close brewery was built. (28)The inn had been established during the previous century on land adjoining the medieval foundation of St Nicholas' Hospital. (29) Situated at the junction of South Baileygate at a location then known as Tinklers Stone, it is probable that the inn was housed in premises that had once been the hospital bede house.(30) Indeed, frequent reference to the 'Tinkler's Stone Inn' throughout the first half of the nineteenth century may be an indication that the inn was first identified by that name. (31) Purchase of the Hope & Anchor, whilst providing a necessary outlet for the increasing capacity of Gaggs, Carter & Co., may well represent the initial step in a conscious decision by the partners to extend their business activities into wider and more lucrative areas beyond Knottingley township.

The Hope & Anchor, strategically placed alongside the busy roads on the eastern periphery of the borough of Pontefract, stood within a few hundred yards of a rival establishment, the Royal Oak, situated in Bailey Street (the Booths). Whether motivated by the desire to eliminate a trade rival or by the dictates of expanding trade is conjectural, but on the 22nd February,1820, the partnership purchased the premises housing the Royal Oak. (32) The continued existence of both houses suggests a plentitude of trade with one establishment drawing the bulk of its custom from the northerly route to and from the ancient market town and the other serving travellers on the Southgate road.

Simultaneous to the purchase of the Royal Oak was the acquisition of a property at Knottingley in the possession of Benjamin Branford and his wife, Susannah. The property is not identified by name in the deed of purchase but the locational description indicates that it was situated between Aire Street and Back Lane (Croft, access to the premises being along Darnbrook's Fold from a point in Aire Street opposite the Flatts. (33) As Branford is recorded as the publican at the Blue Bell Inn, Back Lane, in 1822, it is probable that the unnamed property purchased by the brewery shortly before was in fact the Blue Bell. (34)

In November, 1827, the company bought the Rising Sun Inn, Hill Top, from Samuel Bamford. (35) The inn, situated opposite the entrance to the brewery, had formerly been a dwelling house belonging to William Butler and let by him to William Taylor. By 1813, however, the property was in use as a public house leased to Taylor for seven years at an annual rent of eighteen guineas, payable half yearly. (36) A further public house located opposite the Flatts in Aire Street, Knottingley, was the Anchor Inn. This property was purchased in a personal capacity by John Carter and re-let to the brewery company at a yearly rent of 20. (37) The date of purchase by Carter is unrecorded but occurred sometime between his reaching adulthood in 1823 and becoming a company director in 1836. (38)

It is from Carter's assumption of the control of the business in 1836 that the policy of public house acquisition gained momentum. On the 6th May, 1837, the Ship Inn, Knottingley, was purchased from Samuel Atkinson, a local ropemaker and John Austwick, a mariner of the town. (39) Situated on the Island, Aire Street, the inn and its environs formed part of an ancient site associated with the maritime activity within the township and this is reflected in the number and nature of the properties which formed part of the purchase of the inn. (40)

It is worth digressing to note the frequency with which the sale of a public house included the sale of adjacent properties, not only the brewhouses and granaries and stables which one might naturally expect to form a part of such sales, but cottages and also such varied items as blacksmiths', nailmakers' and glaziers' shops or, as in the case of the Ship Inn, a boathouse. The obligation to buy accompanying properties in order to obtain the desired inn placed a financial strain upon even the most prosperous concern, notwithstanding the income to be gained from the letting of such buildings.

Whilst little is known of such affairs, Carter's accounts do do contain indications of mortgages obtained in conjunction with early purchases. There is a reference to interest being paid to the Pontefract attorney, Bolland, in respect of the Duke of York Inn (41) and an entry of July, 1864, more specifically reveals repayment of a mortgage in connection with the Ship Inn. (42)

On the 8th May, 1837, the Royal Oak, Back Lane, Knottingley, previously known as the Ship & Punch Bowl and also for a brief period in the 1820s, as the Oak & Standard, was purchased by the brewery company. (43) Two years later on the 30th October, 1839, the Duke of York Inn, situated in the Holes, Knottingley, was sold with orchard and garden by the owner-occupier, William Smithson, who was also in business as a brick and tile maker. (44) A transaction dated November, 1840, concerns the purchase of

".....five dwelling houses, one of which was lately used as a Knottingley, near the Swan Inn." (45)

The property which included a blacksmiths' shop, cowhouse, yards and outbuildings of sundry description was sold by Robert Jackson who is known to have purchased the said property from Thomas Atkinson, 17th May, 1825. (46) The extensive nature of the property, situated between the Swan Inn and Gaggs Bridge, may, like the Swan Inn itself, have formed part of the Manor House associated with the Ingram family until the late eighteenth century before passing to the Atkinsons. It is of passing interest to note the demise of the aforementioned beerhouse not merely as an indication of the transitory nature of such establishments which had by 1840 largely run their course but also the fact that the vendor, Robert Jackson, later combined his trade as a blacksmith with that of beerhouse keeper at premises further along Hill Top which were to become known as the Commercial Hotel. A further point of incidental interest is the reference to the brewer, William Hurst, as the occupant of one of the purchased dwelling houses. (47)

The company obtained a formalised agreement concerning the Jolly Sailor Inn, Knottingley, in 1841. Standing at Manor Fold, between Racca Green and the canalside, the inn was established in the third decade of the nineteenth century following the increase in the volume of traffic and the population of that area consequent upon the opening of the Knottingley-Goole canal in 1826. The inn was originally named as the John Bull and occupied one of several dwelling houses erected upon the canalside site by Edward Spence.(48) The death of Spence may have created financial difficulties for his widow, Mary, resulting in the granting of the leasehold to John Carter on the 23rd September, 1841 (49) The seven year lease was renewed for a further ten years in October,1847, at which time Joseph Spence was the publican. However, the title to the property was held by William Dey, a local mariner who occupied one of the nearby dwelling houses built by Edward Spence. Dey appears to have secured the deeds to the inn as security for a loan to Widow Spence who was also named as an interested party in the lease renewal document. (50) Dey himself seems to have experienced some financial problems for on the 29th October he surrendered the deeds of the Jolly Sailor and the surrounding properties to Carter as security for a loan of 175 at 5% interest per annum. On the 15th August,1851, a further loan of 135 at 4% was obtained by William and Michael Dey and although the debt was cleared in November, 1857, the financial obligation to Carter had resulted in an accommodation by which the leasehold was renewed for a further seven years on 16th January, 1858. (51) Although the brewery held the leasehold the ownership was retained by the Dey family (52) even as late as 1922, by which time the premises had long been converted to a workingmens' club, Edward Moorhouse Dey being the steward. (53)

As a busy market town serving the agricultural and commercial interests of the district the trade value of public houses in Pontefract was considerable. During the 1840s therefore, the company acquired several other outlets in the Borough. In 1843, John Carter purchased a dwelling house

"formerly used as a public house known by the sign of the Wellington in Shoemarket and then occupied as three separate tenaments one of them being a public house known as the Three Horse Shoes." (54)

Following the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, Wellington became a national hero and many public houses were named in his honour. Two such houses in Pontefract bore his name, a second one referred to variously as the Wellington and the Wellington Arms was situated in Micklegate near the junction of Broad Lane and Southgate.(55) In March,1856, this too became a Gaggs, Carter & Co. property when the publican, James Taylor, was compelled to sell the inn and sundry adjacent properties in order to placate his creditors, the principal one being John Carter. (56) The inn obviously did not fit into the brewery plans, however, for only four months later on the 19th July, 1856, the entire site was sold to Noel Luis and Joze Luis Fernandes, common brewers of Doncaster Road, Wakefield. (57) It would appear that Gaggs, Carter & Co., were more interested in obtaining sites centrally situated at that time and to this end, in October, 1849, the company obtained the New Elephant (formerly the Elephant & Castle) in Market Place. (58)

The opening of the Wakefield-Pontefract-Goole Railway in 1848 provided a direct line between Knottingley and Goole. The latter town had been developed as the terminal point of the Aire & Calder Navigation in the 1820s and the Humber trade had ensured its prosperity as a substantial river port. Carter was not slow to appreciate the business potential of the urban development, a fact which is clearly evident from his private sponsorship of the proposed rail link. (59)

As early as May, 1842, the company had obtained a half share in the 99 year lease granted by the Trustees of the Navigation Company to the Thorne based brewers William Whitfield and Charles Darley at an annual rent of 15. The leasehold consisted of 900 square yards of land at Hook, Goole, upon which the Victoria Tavern and seven dwelling houses had been erected. (60) Lying alongside the canal towpath, the inn, renamed as the Steam Packet, was ideally situated to catch the passing trade by road and waterway and this fact doubtless influenced Carter who in October,1850, lent 831 at 4% interest per annum, to Gaggs, Carter & Co., to enable them to purchase the entire leasehold.(61) Throughout the 'fifties various additions and improvements were made to the premises to bolster and recoup the company's outlay and in 1863 the debt was repaid.(62)

The booming port also offered scope for similar investment in a property situated in George Street with the clear but unadorned name of the Aire & Calder Commercial Inn. The purpose built public house with adjoining coach houses, granaries, miscellaneous outbuildings and a pair of cottages, were leased by the Navigation Co. in April 1829 for the term of 99 years. (63) In August, 1835, the property was demised to a Leeds builder, Joseph Sykes, and John Carter and the name of the inn was changed to that of the Sydney Hotel (also referred to as the Sykes Hotel). (64) In December,1863, John Carter paid the sum of 1,000 for the sole right to the leasehold at an annual rental of 9-5-6. (65) a sum easily recouped by subletting an adjacent part of the site as an ironmonger's shop. (66) From the 1850s Knottingley brewery also supplied beer to a further Goole inn by
the name of the Cape of Good Hope. (67)

The inns associated with the waterway in urban locations whilst obviously more profitable were not of exclusive interest to the company. Those in rural settings also attracted attention during the following decade. The Junction Inn, Heck Bridge, was purchased with barn, stables, cowshed, granaries and garth for the sum of 700 in November, 1869. (68) Again, the acquisition of the property conveyed a supplementary pecuniary advantage to the purchaser in the form of the eatage and fishing rights around Heck basin which were let to the brewery at little more than a token rent by the Aire & Calder Trustees and then sub-let by the company to successive tenants at an annual rent. (69) A similarly rural property close to the canal was the Flyboat Inn, Whitley, which was obtained on lease by the brewery, 13th April, 1868,(70) and was the subject of renewed agreement in December, 1872. (71) The land, 1 acre 27 perches in extent, held the customary barns, foldyard, orchard and garden which characterised so many former homesteads in rural and semi-rural locations, transformed by the perceived economic opportunities arising from industrial and urban development.The company pushed northward towards the ancient market town of Selby with its commercial and maritime connections supplementing its agricultural base, taking possession of the Grey Horse Inn, Gowthorpe in 1845.

The acquisition of the Joiners Arms, Campsall, the following year set a trend in a southerly direction towards Doncaster, another old market town where burgeoning industry promoted by the establishment of the engineering works of the London & North Eastern Railway Co. combined with the annual attraction of the St. Ledger, held at the town's racecourse, promised profitable business. (72) The move south reveals the decision of the company to develop an existing foothold in the area for as early as March, 1843, Carter had purchased land at Askern and by 1848, held various plots in and around Campsall. (73) Askern, with its proximity to Doncaster reinforced by its rail link, was also developing a reputation as a spa town which John Carter himself visited on at least one occasion.(74) It is not therefore surprising that the brewery obtained the Commercial Inn, Askern, in January, 1851.(75)

The 1850s witnessed the purchase of further properties within Knottingley. The Red Lion Inn, situated at Fernley Green, was obtained together with garden and yard, containing a butchers shop and slaughter house, in June, 1850. (76) A further gain was the Bay Horse Inn, Hill Top, purchased 14th May, 1852. (77) On the same day the site of the defunct public house, the Admiral Nelson, was bought. Situated in a yard opposite the Flatts in Aire Street and used at that time as a residence and printing workshop by William Simpson Hepworth, the site was later named Hepworth's (or Post Office) Yard.(78) The leasehold was also obtained on the Commercial Inn, at an annual rent of 23. (79) The inn which stood at the east end of the Bendles at the junction with Racca Green and had briefly formed an important staging post for travellers using the flyboats which plied between Knottingley and the ports of Goole and Hull during the coaching era. The rapid decline of this trade following the introduction of the railway service was a probable reason why the property was placed on the market shortly thereafter.(80)

Gaggs, Carter & Co. were recorded as the owners of the brewery and six public houses and a brewhouse in May 1857. Additionally, the Anchor Inn, was shown as the private possession of John Carter. (81) Carter purchased three cottages at Outwood, Wakefield, from William Smithson and his wife, Jane, on 16th February,1854. Smithson, resident at Pontefract, was the same person from whom Carter had bought the Duke of York Inn, Knottingley in 1839. (82) The Outwood site, at Bottom Boat Road, contained a beerhouse, known as the Masons Arms, probably kept by Smithson or his undertenant, and supplied by Knottingley brewery. The leasehold on the property was obtained for an initial period of ten years from John Pape of Leeds, 9th January, 1860. (83)

A property which was obtained copyhold but was later enfranchised was the Bridge Inn, Glasshoughton, Castleford. The site included three cottages and a foldstead near to the inn, which was originally named the Spangled Bull and then the Glass Blowers' Inn, when it became the possession of Thomas Smith, a former glassmaker. (84) The date at which copyhold was obtained by the brewery company is somewhat obscure. A reliable legal document indicates a date sometime before June 1856 (85) but a deed of 27th December, 1858, refers to an indenture of July the previous year when Smith appears to have entered the property. (86) A further deed of June,1868, between Smith and John Carter marks the renewal of the copyhold agreement and gives the extent of the holding as 240 square yards. It would appear that the initial agreement was for a period of ten years with the option of renewal. A reference to "all buildings erected thereon or about to be erected" suggests ongoing development in connection with the property, indicating (as in the case of the Steam Packet, Goole) that the company had an active development policy in respect of improvements to its tied houses. (87) Partial identification of the existent buildings on the site is revealed in a conveyance of 26th July, 1892, which refers to blacksmiths and joiners shops and other conveniences, including a dwelling house near the bridge. The obvious upgrading of the material condition of the inn by that time is reflected in its nomination as the Bridge Hotel. (88)

Rurally, the King's Head, Pollington, was acquired in May, 1859. The house was but recently erected upon the site of an earlier tenement and had accompanying stables, outbuildings and garth. (89) An interesting sidelight concerning the property is the existence of a sketch map, presumably drawn by Carter, in his rent ledger. The map reveals that the company owned the land to a point some three feet beyond the boundary hedge situated at right angles to the rear of the inn. Also revealed is a dwelling house standing next to the public house yard. The dwelling house contained two windows which overlooked the pub yard. In respect of each of the features indicated by the map it was noted that,"the next owner ought to pay acknowledgement." (90)

The clear philosophy of 'look after the pennies.....' symbolised by Carter's entry was one commonly observed in an age when buildings were erected according to the random dictates of individual whim and available space. Sums paid annually in acknowledgement of such trespass were usually mere tokens, sixpence or a shilling a year being quite common. Nevertheless, such payments were rigorously observed. Thus, in the case of the Windmill Inn, Pontefract, which was situated on a parallel line to the Rose & Crown in Finkle Street and had two windows overlooking the latter, an acknowledgement payment was due each year. Carters' accounts record the sum of ten shillings per year paid to the company when the Rose & Crown was purchased by the brewery in 1875. (91) Conversely, the purchase of the Punch Bowl, Beal, in 1864, involved the company in payment of a peppercorn rent, the accounts recording that,"the barn is built upon waste land belonging to the Lords of the Manor - Charged one shilling per year." (92)

A further payment of five shillings per year was made by the company to the trustees of St. Nicholas' Hospital, Tinklers Stone, in respect of the Hope & Anchor, Pontefract, a fact which reinforces the conjecture that this inn was established on land comprising part of the hospital. (93) The brewery also paid the sum of ten shillings to John Stanhope in November, 1873, "being an allowance for suffrance of [the] sign for the Anchor Inn, for nine years" and 1-5-0. was paid to Charles Wilson in respect of the same, in December, 1876. (94)

Acquisition of tied houses continued apace throughout the 1860s and subsequent decades. One property obtained in 1871 was the Railway Hotel, Knottingley, a large, imposing establishment, purposely built by William Moorhouse in the late 1840s to cater for the road and rail travellers passing through the town which was a major rail junction during the period 1850-66. (95) Moorhouse sold the hotel to Christopher Sturdy in April, 1854 (96) and at the start of the following decade the premises were resold to William Earnshaw whose brother, George, was the publican. Thus began the connection which led to the hotel being referred to locally as Earnshaw's Hotel. (97)

The premises were originally named the Royal Albert Hotel in honour of the Prince Consort but renamed as the Railway Hotel in 1866. In its strategic situation at the junction of the station drive and the main arterial road through the town, the hotel was also ideally suited to serve as a posting house, a function it retained well into the twentieth century. (98) Surrounded by open fields and pleasant gardens, the property consisted of extensive stables and three adjacent cottages. In Spring,1861, Sturdy was declared a bankrupt and John Carter and other creditors had filed claims against him. (99) In December of that year Carter was in possession of the hotel site and other lands previously held by Sturdy, including a malthouse located west of the hotel. (100) There is some confusion concerning the ownership of the inn, however, for the company accounts reveal that for a further decade the brewery merely rented the hotel. (101) The building was eventually purchased in 1871, together with nearby property, an initial sum of 40, representing 10% of the agreed purchase price of 1,300 was made in December of that year.(102) The balance was paid on the 5th February, 1872. (103) The system of purchase by initial deposit followed by settlement of the outstanding balance at a later date is one which is increasingly evident in transactions undertaken by the Carters from the 1860s. The reasons for the adoption of such a procedure may reflect the increase in complexity of legal procedures in general in respect of property transactions by that date and also the increase in the value of licensed properties as the result of heightened competition within the brewery trade. The method applied in the case of the purchase of the Cross Swords, Salter Row, Pontefract. In January,1864. A deposit of 27-12-0 was paid and the balance of the sale price of 276, together with interest, was paid in March. (104) The vendor also received an additional 7-5-0 paid in respect of certain fixtures and fittings. The payment may have been for chandeliers and bells which formed the subject of a separate valuation. (105)

The acceptance of a separate payment in respect of such refinements bespeaks the attempts by the owners of licensed premises to upgrade the facilities, not merely in terms of customer comfort, which competition was making increasingly necessary, but also as a means of combatting the hostility of the propaganda of the temperance movement which was engendering a public perception of public houses as crude dens of iniquity and moral laxity. The Punch Bowl, Beal, became the first of four public houses within that small village to be acquired by Carters when it was purchased 5th June, 1864. The inn, later renamed as the King's Arms (and more recently as the Hungry Fox) stood at the southern end of Beal bridge and was bought for the sum of 400 together with stables, garden and yard containing the usual outbuildings and also a parcel of land named Moorhouse (or Back) Lane Field (106) The inn had previously been rented by the brewery company as indicated by the repayment of pre-paid rent some weeks after the purchase of the property. (107)

The 7th July 1866, saw the Railway Tavern, Eastfield Road, Castleford, added to the company books, which already included purchase of the Horse Shoes Inn, (and the nailmaker's workshop within the inn yard) in 1861. (108) For a decade or more the company had been reaching out towards Castleford for the development of the arduous, dehydrating trades and occupations of glassmaker, miner and potter were centred within the town, assuring beersellers of a lucrative trade. The fact was not missed by rival brewers, however, making Carters' attempts to obtain a foothold difficult and expensive. However, the company obtained the leasehold on another Castleford house in March, 1871; the White Hart Inn. The indenture of conveyance refers to a club room situated above the premises, suggesting that the inn provided a venue for a local trade or social organisation with the implication of good reputation and regular trade. A reference to the location of the inn lying between "Carleton Street and a new street calledPowell Street" provides a glimpse into the ongoing process of urban development within the town at that time and bespeaks the potential of the house for expansion of trade. (109)

The Horse Shoes was also the name of a Knottingley house acquired by the company by 1866. Little is known of this property, however, no data having been found other than a reference to the payment of an insurance premium, dated 29th September, 1866 but it may have been situated on the south side of Racca Green, a little to the west of the new Lamb Inn. (110)

It was in July, 1866, that John Carter began a long association with the Royal Hotel, Batley. The inn had been built as a pair of dwelling houses by the partnership of Simon Bailey and William Carr and was situated at the east side of the Gomersall and Dewsbury Turnpike Road. The 1866 agreement was in respect of the leasehold on the property and arose in consequence of a loan of 350 made by Carter against a mortgage on the property. (111) The money was lent to Carr who had recently bought out Bailey's interest in the inn. The company accounts show expenditure of 15 shillings incurred by John Carter for two days spent at Batley in August when taking the lease, together with 1-9-0 paid to William Scholefield Esq. for drawing up the lease on the property (112) and followed by a further payment of three guineas in December, also for preparation of the lease which although obtained in Carter's name was held on behalf of the company, which paid rent of 100 per annum commencing in August,1866. (113)

In 1861, the White Lion Inn, Pontefract, was rented by the brewery from the owner, Mrs Elizabeth Batty of Halifax. The publican at that date was John Heckingbottom who paid the sum of 35 per year as the company's sub-tenant. The following year, however, a new tenant, James Robinson entered the inn. Robinson appears to have experienced financial problems and by April,1862, was in debt to Carter for the sum of 20. The burden of debt apparently overwhelmed Robinson for at a later date the words "bad, insolvent" were recorded opposite Robinson's name in Carter's Rent Book. (114) Given his financial problems it is hardly surprising that Robinson's tenure ended in bankruptcy. An entry in the company accounts records 32 spent on a valuation undertaken in February,1863, by John Simpson, Sheriff's Officer, in respect of the fixtures, goods and licences of the house. A further payment of 7s 6d was charged for the magistrates certificate in respect of the incoming tenant, Henry Thwaites, the following March. (115) It is evident that the bankruptcy of any publican was the cause of some expense to the brewer and therefore to be avoided if possible. Robinson's misfortune allied to the short tenure of his predecessor, Heckingbottom, suggests that the high level of the rent demanded by the brewery may have been a burdensome financial factor. The supposition is given credence by the fact that Robinson's successor as publican was given a substantial rent reduction, paying only 20 per year. Thwaite's entry also coincided with the company's acquisition of the leasehold on the White Lion at a cost of 47-10-0 a year. (116)

Annual rental was replaced by leasehold on another Pontefract inn, the Black Poney, (sic) in South Baileygate. The leasehold was first obtained in May, 1862, and in 1874, a short time after the death of John Carter, it was renewed in the name of Carter's widow for a further period of seven years at a charge of 19 per year. (117) The application of Mrs Carter's name was doubtless a legal technicality arising in consequence of the unsettled nature of her demised husband's estate but the the lady was the sole owner of Greyhound Inn, Knottingley, which she had inherited from her first husband, John Bywater, following his death in 1863. The Greyhound had been leased to the brewery since 1861 and the lease was renewed in 1872. (118)

The Star Inn, Beastfair, Pontefract, was leased by the brewery as early as 1856 when the company paid R.W. Nicholson the sum of 25 per annum. In common with the White Lion, trade at the Star appears to have suffered some deterioration. An item in the company accounts dated February 1863, records payment of a fee to John Bentley, the Knottingley auctioneer and valuer, for the sale of Thomas Moulson's furniture on a distress warrant for rent, Moulson being the last recorded tenant of the Star. (119) The inn remained open for a little longer, however, for on the 10th February, 1865, John Carter recorded,

"We have paid the half year's rent before due to give up this house, being liable for another half year to Nicholson, agreeing to settle on these terms." (120)

However, a deed of 30th October, 1868, reveals the disposal of the Star Inn with its adjoining brewhouse and other outbuildings, as part of a multiple property transaction involving Carter and others (121)

The Mail Coach, was yet another Pontefract inn rented by the brewery company from a Mrs Marchant of York, for 27 per year in 1861. (122) In July, 1877, following the death of the owner, an agreement was reached with her executors and the sum of 170 was made available as the deposit against the purchase of the property, together with a further 15-16-0 for outstanding rent. (123) However, an undefined problem arose in consequence of which the executors declined to complete the sale (124) and the company's lease was terminated in 1879. (125)

The Mariners Arms, Racca Green, Knottingley, is first recorded in 1848 when Charles Sefton was the publican. A decade later George Sefton is named as the owner of the Mariners House (sic) Inn in 1857. The erroneously named property stood on Racca Green opposite the entrance to the Bendles.(126) The inn was supplied by the Knottingley brewery who by 1861 paid the yearly sum of 25. The inn seems to have suffered declining trade for by January,1868, the rent had been reduced to 23 and shortly thereafter the name of the inn disappeared from the brewery records. (127) A valuation of August,1867, within the Carter archives may be indicative of an intention to purchase but the inn had closed by 1870. (128)

A quite frequent occurrence during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (and one increasingly in vogue in the second half of the present century) was the renaming of licensed premises. Such a transformation occurred in respect of the Limestone Inn, Knottingley, which was renamed as the Lamb Inn and eventually accorded the ultimate distinction of having the nearby road name after it. Prior to becoming a public house the property was a farmstead and continued as such for many years after the establishment of the inn. Indeed, George Hall, one of the tenants during the 1860s is described in Carters records as a farmer and publican. (129) The inn was rented as early as October, 1857, from William Jackson, a close friend of John Carter, to whom the company paid 14 each year. (130) Following Jackson's death rent continued to be paid to his executors (131) but a loan of 200 made by Carter to George Hall in 1867 against the mortgage of the property indicates that the ownership of the premises had changed by that date. (132) The change is in fact confirmed by a deed of October,1867, which names Hall as the owner and refers to the inn as "now, or late in the tenure ofJohn Carter & Co." (133) The name of the inn seems to have been changed by Hall to one more suited to his pastoral occupation for an entry in Carter's Rent Book refers to the "Limestone or Lamb Inn", suggesting that the change was of recent date. (134) As in the case of the Railway Hotel, the names appear to have been interchangeable for a record of January, 1871, shows Hall had refunded 5-5-0, being half the annual rent, through the loss of the licence of the "Limestone Inn". (135) The loss of the licence resulted in the closure of the inn for several years and it was not until September 1873, that the premises were sold to the brewery by Hall for the sum of 305. The purchase is significant in that it was the last property to be bought by Carter on the company's behalf before his death the following month. (136)

Shortly before Carter's death he had arranged the leasehold of the Buck Inn, Aire Street, together with adjacent cottages on payment of 50 per annum. The acquisition of the leasehold replaced the annual rental agreement with the owner, Aaron Hartley of Hunslet, to whom 35 rent had been paid each year since 1858. (137) A further retail outlet from 1869, was the Anvil Inn, Knottingley. The inn appears to have been established in the early years of the decade by John Fell as an adjunct to his trade as a blacksmith and was in fact originally named as the Anvil & Blacksmith. (138) Like the nearby Greyhound Inn, the trade of the Anvil was considerably boosted by the increase in the volume of traffic using Weeland Road in the decades following the opening of the canal. It is therefore unsurprising to find the Anvil Inn, together with Bridge House and a stable "....formerly a blacksmiths shop", the subject of company purchase. On 16th May 1872, the property was purchased from John Bentley for the sum of 1,000. (139) In passing, it is perhaps worth mentioning that, like the Lamb Inn, the Anvil became a point of geographical identification, the nearby Jackson Bridge being better known amongst locals as the Anvil Bridge.

Other outlets beyond Knottingley obtained on lease by the company before 1860 include the Shoulder of Mutton, Kirk Smeaton and the Cross Keys, Hillam, formerly named as the Lord Nelson, and the George & Dragon, Castleford. (140) The lease of the last named expired in October,1877, and does not appear to have been renewed (141) The house at Hillam, formerly copyhold of the Manor of Hillam, belonged to John Carter's brother, Thomas Mark Carter, common brewer of Wakefield, and was let to Knottingley brewery at 17 per year. (142) The Cross Keys was purchased privately by George William Carter in 1877 together with eight nearby cottages, and let by him to the company at 60 per annum. (143) The inn at Kirk Smeaton was still being rented by the company for the sum of 15-17-0 as late as 1876. (144) The Crown Inn, Monk Fryston, owned by Mrs Elizabeth Bentley, was obtained on lease about 1861, (145) whilst the Fox & Hounds, Thorpe Audlin, another pub in the Selby district, was bought from Dr and Mrs Oxley of Pontefract, together with garden, cottages and sundry premises, for 1,000, in January, 1881 (146) having been rented by the brewery since September 1862. (147) The acquisition of the Fox & Hounds reveals the general practice of the brewery to install a new tenant upon taking over a public house, either leasehold or freehold, for the company record concerning the licence application for the Fox & Hounds has a marginal note which states; "This [licence] money is newly laiddown until we get a tenant to the house". (148)

Yet another acquisition on the western periphery of the company's sphere of business was the Three Horse Shoes, Brierley. The inn belonged to Thomas Dymond from whom the premises were rented in June 1864. The ascertainable facts concerning the inn provide yet another indication of the deterioration which could occur to public houses as the result of the impoverishment of the publican or the indifference of an absentee owner. On the 22nd June,1864, John Carter lent the sum of 120 at 5% annual interest to Messrs Froggatt, Askin and Askin. At that time Henry Froggatt was the publican at the Three Horse Shoes, paying a quarterly rent of 10. In December of the following year, Froggatt's associate, Joseph Askin took over as the tenant. Askin not only paid a reduced rent of 35 per annum but was allowed a rebate of 17-10-0 as "allowance for dilapidation during Froggat's tenancy". Askin appears, however, to have been unable to prevent further deterioration for by June, 1867, when William Thackray became the tenant, the rent had been further reduced to 30 a year. (149)

The details concerning the ownership of the inn are somewhat vague. An entry in the brewery accounts for March, 1873, records payment of 12-10-0 " Mr Battison, Barnsley, towards rent of [the] house at Brierley for the priviledge (sic) of supplying it with ale" (150) and again in 1875, "15 to Mr Battison for the priviledge (sic) of serving the inn at Brierley with beer during the year 1873 according to agreement" (151) from which it is evident that the company was still paying an annual rental on the property which appears to have been purchased by Battison between times. Whatever the vagaries concerning ownership, it is known that initially the brewery obtained the leasehold on the inn for a seven year period, in 1875. (152) The lease was not renewed upon its expiration and the premises were, together with the long-serving tenant, transferred to an earlier owner who appears to have repurchased the inn for the company records reveal, "permission given to William Thackray who is now Mr Dymond's tenant". (153)

A further example of an absentee landlord concerns the Clock Inn, Snaith which was let to the company by George Bateson de Yarburgh Esquire of of Heslington Hall, York, in October, 1862. (154) Again, the combination of rural location, and ancient market, acting as a focus for the agricultural interest, with the district magistrates court providing a venue for the business and professional elements of local society, and supplemented by the proximity of the road and canal link with nearby Goole, made the inn an attractive prospect for the company. So much so that the renewal of the rental was successfully negotiated in April, 1878. (155)

A more urban acquisition was the Pine Apple Inn, Gillygate, Pontefract, which was obtained by the brewery in 1870. The premises had since July, 1865, been rented at 20 per year of Thomas Horsley of York. (156) In August,1870, a deposit of 40, plus 1-10-0 as half the cost of the equipment within the house, was made to Mr G. Charlton of Pontefract, the owner's representative. (157) The balance of 360 was paid on the 1st November, 1870. (158)

The penultimate purchase of licensed premises made by John Carter took place on the 16th August, 1873, when the King's Head, Beal, was purchased. The property which included a garden and three cottages had been mortgaged to the company for the sum of 400 in 1871. (159) The owner, Thomas Burkill, may have suffered financial difficulties for in August, 1873, (at which time he was erroneously referred to as "Buskill, late of Beal") he sold the property to John Carter on behalf of the brewery for 725. (160)

The blend of urban and rural properties acquired by the company indicates that while urban locations were naturally more profitable and therefore more desirable, those situated in the countryside were not to be despised. In each case, however, the volume of trade, whilst obviously important, was only one consideration influencing company policy. A second and increasingly significant factor from the 1860s was the necessity to obtain tied premises as an instrument to prevent, or at least minimise the threat to trade posed by the competition of rival breweries. The intensification of competition during the three decades following the death of John Carter ensured that the tied house policy was followed of necessity by his son and successor, George William Carter when he assumed control of the brewery in October, 1873.



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